Forman Watercolor Diagrams
Forman Watercolor Diagrams
Series of thirty-six 8"x10" study drawings in watercolor and ink created for landscape ecology education in preparation for my 2014 Trifecta Editions' Artist Residency at Eagle Lake, NY. This mixed media series reinterprets diagrams from Richard TT Forman's Harvard Graduate School of Design class lectures, field trips and publication: Land Mosaics, The ecology of landscapes and regions, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006. All text, unless noted otherwise, by Richard TT Forman.
Interested in learning more about Richard Forman's seminal landscape ecology work? I highly recommend these publications:
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Planning
Fig. 13.3 Spatial patterns produced by three groups of processes. (a) Separate patterns; (b) planned refers to the rea as a whole; (c) unplanned refers to the area as a whole, though some or many places are highly planned and designed. Green area = natural vegetation; white = agriculture; coarse grid = residential; fine grid = commercial.
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Modeling Mosaic Sequences
Fig 12.8. Models of mosaic sequences. Each area starts 100% dark green and is progressively replaced by a white new-land-type (light green is simply used to identify locations of new land type during the 10% to 50% replacement period). White land type surrounds the landscape. Illustration based on original figure prepared by Kristina Hill.
Forman Watercolor Diagram: Landscape Types and Regions
Fig. 9.10 Six types of landscape based on predominant spatial pattern. (Adapted from Forman (1990b).
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Moving Patches
Fig. 4.13. Shapes suggesting past origin, present functioning, and future change.
Forman Watercolor Diagram: Habitat Arrangements and Strategic Points
Fig.9.12. habitat interspersion, adjacencies, and convergency points.
A result of interspersing more than two habitats is to produce convergency points ('junctions' or type of 'convert'). Design (a) has one convergency point, while design (d) has one has two. Such locations are of special importance to certain species. Convergency points are important well beyond wildlife habitat. They are often funnels for flows of water, eroded particulates, and mineral nutrients, as well as for moving animals. Thus, they are ideal locations for predators and hunters. Indeed, for the same reason, they are ideal for wildlife-oberserving blinds and platforms (Forman, 2006). Convergence locations are also ideal for ecological-based landscape interventions such as hibernaculum (Borden, 2014).
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Boundaries and Edges
Fig. 3.13. Eight common boundary surfaces
Forman Watercolor Diagram: Edge as Habitat
Fig 3.12. Wildlife usage and movement relative to boundary curvilinearity. Woodland is pinyon-juniper and grassland is grama-sagebrush. Scattered green dots represent elk (Cervus) and mule deer (Odocoileus), based on track and scat densities. Solid arrows indicate much movement, dashed arrows, intermediate movement, and dotted arrows little movement. P = predator movement (coyote, Canis). Summary patterns based on unpublished data of R. Forman, D. Smith, and S. Collinge from near Taos, New Mexico (USA).
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Key Processes
Fig. 7.4 Flow rates and stream-bottom particle sizes along river mosaic. Numbers 1 to 8 are sections along the river differentiated by a distinct change or boundary. Dotted line = hillslope. Material entering laterally from a tributary or in subsurface flow also passes through patches and boundaries. Flow rates and particle sizes are represented by large, medium, and small arrows and circles.
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Wind
Fig. 2.3. Generalized patterns of wind speed and productivity in a field. Relative to average wind speed over forest, thick arrows in field indicate accelerated , and dashed arrows reduced, wind speed. Un-shaded areas of field indicate low plant productivity.
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Windbreaks and Wind
Fig. 9.1. Flows or movements in an ecosystem cluster and a catena. (a) Flows between a patch and its surroundings in relation to distance and ecosystem or land use type. Amounts of flow indicated by arrows line weights. (b) Flows among five soils in a catena. Adapted from Hole & Campbell (1985) and Woodmansee (1990).
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Downwind
Fig 10.8. Downwind smoke and pollutant deposits related to temperatures above the ground. Adapted from Geiger (1965).
Forman Watercolor Diagrams: Hedgerows as Habitat
Fig. 6.9. Distinctive windbreak patterns around pastures. (a) to (d) Suggestions for the northern Great Plains of North America (Dronen 1988). (e) used successfully in North America in conjunction with Today I Learned (TIL) education movement (Borden 2014). Orientation is determined by wind and snowstorm directions.